Nations and dissident groups have the access to skills needed to selectively cultivate some of the most dangerous pathogens and to deploy them as agents of biological terrorism and how to write a cover letter for assistant bookkeeper The Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo that released the nerve gas Sarin in the Tokyo subway also had plans for biological terrorism They were in possession of large quantities of nutrient media, botulinum toxin, anthrax cultures and drove aircraft equipped with spray tanks.
Members of this group had traveled to Zaire in to obtain a literatures review of laboratory acquired brucellosis of Ebola virus. Aum Shinrikyo is an example of a large well financed organization that was attempting to develop biological weapons capability.
Such organizations would be expected to a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis the greatest harm, because of their access to scientific expertise, biological agents and most importantly, dissemination technology Smaller, less sophisticated organizations may use biological agents to further their specific goals rather than to kill. Such organizations could use readily available pathogens. The Rajhneeshees who attempted to influence local elections in Dallas, Oregon by contaminating salad bars with Salmonella typhimurium.
Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing: Selected Indications
The third type are smaller a literatures review of laboratory acquired brucellosis or individuals who may have very limited targets, e. The likelihood of events related to such spm essay on how to stay healthy is high but the public health consequences are a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis.
As of now, the use of anthrax spores through the United States postal system seems to be an example of this type of biological terrorism. Iraq’s biological weapons program dates back to at least and has been carried out secretly after the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention had been signed.
InIraq confirmed that it had produced and deployed bombs, rockets and aircraft spray tanks containing Bacillus anthracis and botulinum toxin In andthe Soviet Politburo formed the organization known most recently as Biopreparat designed to carry out offensive biological weapons programs concealed behind civil biotechnology research Concepts of use had been developed for each of the biological agents formally accepted by the army.
By the mid ‘s substantial changes took place within Biopreparat and a concerted effort is underway to help the Russians civilianize these former biological weapons research and development establishments. The current capability of the old Russian Ministry of Defense sites remains largely unknown. The status of one of Russia’s largest and most sophisticated former bioweapons facilities, called Vector in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk is of concern.
The facility housed the small pox virus as a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis as work on Ebola, Marburg and the hemorrhagic fever viruses e. A visit in found a half-empty facility protected by a handful of guards. No one is clear where the scientists have gone. The confidence that this is the only storage site for small pox outside the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention is lacking.
The Threat of Biological Weapons The Biological weapons system is comprised of four components; a payload, munition, argumentative essay on the other hand system and dispersion system. The payload is the biological agent itself.
The munition protects and carries the payload to maintain its potency during delivery. The delivery system can be a missile, vehicle aircraft, boat, automobile or portfolioflorian.000webhostapp.comor an artillery shell.
The dispersion system ensures dissemination of the payload at the target site. Potential methods of dispersion are aerosol sprays, explosives, and food or water contamination. Aerosol sprays are the most effective means of widespread dissemination. Depending on atmospheric conditions and the a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis itself, infectious material could travel several hundred kilometers in a particle size that upon inhalation would be delivered to the terminal airways.
However factors like particle size of the agent, stability of the agent under desiccating conditions and ultraviolet light, wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability can alter the effectiveness of a given delivery system. Explosions are likely to inactivate biological agents and therefore are not very effective in disseminating infectious materials. Contamination of water supplies generally requires an addition of an unrealistically large amount of biological agent s to a city supply.
The agents may be introduced into smaller reservoirs or into the water supply after the water passes through its purification facility. Food supplies are easier to contaminate than water supplies.
The outbreaks from cockney dialect essay source may be dismissed as a “natural” event early during a bioterrorism attack 30, For a biological weapon to be highly effective, three conditions should be optimized.
The biological agent should consistently produce the thesis statement on brain drain effect of death or disease. It should be highly contagious a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis short and predictable incubation period and infective in low doses.
The disease guidelines writing descriptive essay be difficult to identify and be suspected as an act of bioterrorism.
The a literatures review of laboratory acquired brucellosis should be suitable for mass production, storage, weaponisation, and stable during dissemination. The target population should have little or no immunity and little or no access to treatment. The terrorist should have means to protect or treat their own forces and population essay on donald trump immigration the infectious agents or the toxins The agents with potential of biological terrorism include bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens and toxins produced by living organisms.
Infectious agents that could potentially be used include those causing anthrax Bacillus anthracisplague Yersinia pestistularemia Francisella tularensisequine encephalitides e. Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruseshemorrhagic fevers arenaviruses, filoviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyavirusesand small pox variola virus.
Toxins include botulinum toxin from Clostridium botulinum; ricin toxin from the castor bean Ricinus communis; trichothecene mycotoxins from Fusarium, Myrotecium Trichoderma, Stachybotrys, and other filamentous fungi; staphylococcal enterotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus; and toxins from marine organisms such as dinoflagellates, shellfish, and blue-green algae. Depending on the agents, a lethal or incapacitating outcome can occur.
In a military context, incapacitating agents may be more effective because the unit will not be able to perform their mission and casualties will consume scarce a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis and evacuation assets Biological weapons are very attractive to the terrorist because of several characteristics.
Aerosols of biological agents are invisible, silent, odorless, tasteless, and are relatively easily dispersed. They are – times cheaper than other weapons of mass destruction. It is estimated that the cost would be about 0.
The production is relatively easy, using the common technology available for the production of some antibiotics, vaccines, foods, and beverages. The delivery systems such as spray devices from an airplane, boat or car are commonly available.
The natural lead time provided by the organism’s incubation period 3 to 7 days for a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis potential organisms would allow for the terrorists’ escape before any investigation starts. In addition, the use of an endemic infectious agent may cause confusion because of the inability to differentiate a biological warfare attack from a natural epidemic.
For some agents Is science a curse essay quotes exists for secondary or tertiary a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis by person-to-person transmission or natural vectors. The consequences of biological weapons use are many. They can rapidly produce mass effect that overwhelms services and the health care system of the communities.
Most of the civilian population is susceptible to infections caused by these agents. They are associated with high morbidity and a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis rates.
The resulting illness is usually difficult to diagnose and treat early, particularly in areas where the disease is rarely seen. One kilogram of anthrax powder has the capability to kill up topeople depending on the mechanism of delivery Types of Bioterrorism Attacks A bioterrorist attack may occur in 2 scenarios – overt and covert.
In the past emergency responses were prepared based on overt attacks like bombings and chemical agents that cause immediate and obvious effects. However, attacks with biological agents are more likely to be covert.
They pose different challenges and require emergency planning with the involvement of the public health infrastructure. The attack by a biological agent will not have an immediate impact because of the delay between exposure and onset of illness i. Therefore, the first victims of a bioterrorism action will need to be identified by physicians or other primary health care providers.
Based on the first wave of victims, pubic health officials will need to determine that an attack has occurred, identify the organism and prevent more casualties through prevention strategies case study in sql The clues to a potential bioterrorist attack include an outbreak of a rare or new a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis, an outbreak of diseases in a non-endemic area, a seasonal disease during an off season time, a known pathogen with unusual resistance or unusual epidemiologic features, an unusual clinical presentation or age distribution, a genetically identical pathogen emerging rapidly in different geographical areas Agents of Bioterrorism Attacks Based on the ease of transmission, severity of morbidity, mortality, and likelihood of use, biological agents can be classified into 3 categories Table 1 Table 2 summarizes the biological a literatures review of laboratory acquired brucellosis in category A.
Table 2 Category A Agents Category A includes the highest priority agents that pose a risk to national security because of the following features – i. They can be easily disseminated or transmitted person-to-person causing secondary and tertiary a literatures review of laboratory acquired brucellosis. Anthrax, Botulism, Tularemia, small pox and viral hemorrhagic fever will be discussed in detail during the workshop. In addition, we will have two general presentations – one on laboratory diagnosis of biological weapons and the other the care of children in the event of biological terrorism.
Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions — United States, 2015
In this presentation, I will discuss Plague as a disease and Yersinia pestis as a potential agent of bioterrorism followed by and overview of Category B and Category C a literatures review of laboratory acquired brucellosis.
Plague Microbiology and Epidemiology Plague is caused by Yersinia pestis, previously called Pasturella pestis. Yersinia pestis is a nonmotile, nonsporulating, bipolar-staining, gram-negative coccobacillus in the genus Yersinia and the family Enterobacteriaceae.
It is microaerophilic, indole, oxidase- and urease-negative; non-lactose fermenting and biochemically unreactive. It grows aerobically on most culture media, including blood agar and MacConkey agar. Plague is a notorious cause of catastrophic epidemics. Epidemic bubonic plague was vividly described in biblical and medieval times.
This disease was estimated to ideal student essay in english wikipedia killed one fourth of Europe’s population in the Middle Ages.
The most recent pandemic originated in China and spread worldwide at the turn of the 20th century. Large outbreaks Literature review on hydraulic braking system pneumonic plague occurred in Manchuria and India during -and and The United States studied Y.
Transmission to humans occurs by contact with fleas and respiratory droplets from animals or infected humans. In naturally occurring Macbeth essay ppt the bite by an infected flea leads to the inoculation of thousands of organisms into a patient’s skin.
The bacteria migrate through cutaneous lymphatics to regional lymph nodes where they are phagocytosed but not killed. The fundamental disturbance leading to the autoimmune a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis in ITP is unknown: Antiplatelet antibody production by the spleen and bone marrow in immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Immunoaspects of the Spleen. North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam; A positive antigen-specific assay provides strong evidence for the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia while a negative test does not a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis it out. The frequency of positive assays and the degree 10 page essay on global warming positivity increases with disease severity ref. Antibody-coated platelets may be destroyed by either phagocytosis or complement-induced lysis.
Recent studies suggest that autoantibody may Critical thinking questions about adhd or reduced rather than increased as would be expected suggesting either inhibition of megakaryocytopoiesis or intramedullary destruction of platelets.
Recent in vitro studies, showing reduced megakaryocyte production and impaired maturation in the presence of some ITP plasmas, provide evidence for autoantibody-induced suppression of megakaryocytopoiesis. In one study, plasma antibody from 12 of 18 adults with severe adult ITP suppressed in vitro megakaryocytopoiesis; antibody not only decreased the total number of megakaryocytes produced but also inhibited megakaryocyte maturation ref.
Similar findings are noted in childhood ITP ref.
The implications of this finding, in terms of responsiveness to various forms of therapy, merit study. Effect of ITP plasma on megakaryocyte production and maturation: The results of the 12 of 18 ITP plasmas tested, which showed significant suppression of megakaryocytopoiesis, are shown. Cells cultured in control or ITP-2 plasma no evident suppression of in vitro megakaryocyte production show 4 distinct peaks 2N, 4N, 8N, 16N while cells cultured in ITP-1 plasma suppressed in vitro megakaryocyte essay on how youth can change the world show primarily 2N cells ref.
T lymphocyte-mediated platelet lysis: T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes that react with platelet autoantigens have been detected in the a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis blood and spleen of ITP patients ref1ref2.
A recent study suggests that CTL-induced lysis of platelets may be important ref. Since the number of CTLs is small relative to the number of platelets produced, the in vivo importance of this mechanism in ITP remains to be shown. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity against platelets in patients with chronic ITP: Platelet a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis was determined as follows: Patients with active ITP had significantly increased platelet lysis compared with patients in remission and control patients ref.
Platelets from ITP patients, either fresh or in vitro aged, show increased apoptosis with low levels of activation in comparison to their a literature review of laboratory acquired brucellosis counterparts. Immature DCs readily ingest apoptotic platelets. As yet, no studies show efficacy under actual travel conditions.
Antibiotics can also cause vaginal yeast infectionsor overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficileleading to pseudomembranous colitis and its associated severe, unrelenting diarrhea. Dehydration due to diarrhea can also alter the effectiveness of medicinal and contraceptive drugs. Adequate fluid intake oral rehydration therapy is therefore a high priority.
Commercial rehydration drinks  are widely available; alternatively, purified water or other clear liquids are recommended, along with how to cite a wikipedia article in a research paper crackers or oral rehydration salts available in stores and pharmacies in most countries to replenish lost electrolytes.
Antibiotics[ edit ] If diarrhea becomes severe typically defined as three or more loose stools in an eight-hour periodespecially if associated with nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever, or blood in stools, medical treatment should be sought. Such patients may benefit from antimicrobial therapy. Trimethoprim—sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline are no longer recommended because of high levels of resistance to these agents.
They may be taken to slow the frequency of stools, but not enough to stop bowel movements completely, which delays expulsion of the causative organisms from the intestines.